Adaptation is a complicated topic. In general terms, adaptation is any sort of adjustment in human or natural systems that helps those systems survive changing conditions or become better suited to them. Adaptation to climate change may involve both human and natural systems, or overlaps between the two.
In some cases, adaptation is about dealing with potential harms, such as summer heat waves. In other cases, adaptation is about taking advantage of potential benefits. Often, benefits and harms will come mixed in a package that cannot be easily separated.